Please wait a minute...
Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (12): 1579-1587    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00101
Orginal Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Susceptibility and Hydrogen Trapping Efficiency of the Welded MS X70 Pipeline Steel in H2S Environment
Xiaoyu ZHAO, Feng HUANG(), Lijun GAN, Qian HU, Jing LIU
The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, China
Download:  HTML  PDF(4559KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

Pipeline steels for sour oil and gas containing H2S generally suffer from either hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC). Oil and gas containing high concentration H2S are noxious to pipeline steels because of the hydrogen-induced corrosion. In this study, HIC susceptibility of welded MS X70 pipeline steels was evaluated in NACE “A” solution at room temperature. Meanwhile, microstructure and regions near a HIC crack in the MS X70 base steel and its welded joint were analyzed through OM, SEM and EBSD. The hydrogen trapping efficiency was also investigated by measuring the permeability (J) and the effective hydrogen diffusivity (Deff). The results showed that both base metal and welded joint were highly susceptible to HIC and the later steel sample was more vulnerable than the former. This higher susceptibility could be primarily attributed to the following effects: the higher hydrogen trapping efficiency of bainitic lath microstructure in the welded joint; the more low angle grain boundary in the welded joint also made it easier to crack by improving the hydrogen trapping efficiency of high angle grain boundary; the less amount of coincidence site lattice grain boundary and Σ13b、Σ29b lead to higher HIC susceptibility by decreasing the resistance to crack of high angle grain boundary.

Key words:  MS X70 pipeline steel      welded joint      grain boundary      hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)      hydrogen trapping efficiency     
Received:  28 March 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG172.3  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51571154) and Science and Technology Support Program of Hubei Province (No.2015BAA083)

Cite this article: 

Xiaoyu ZHAO, Feng HUANG, Lijun GAN, Qian HU, Jing LIU. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Susceptibility and Hydrogen Trapping Efficiency of the Welded MS X70 Pipeline Steel in H2S Environment. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(12): 1579-1587.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00101     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2017/V53/I12/1579

Sample C Si Mn P S Cu Cr Ni Mo Nb V Fe
Base metal 0.046 0.257 1.109 0.007 0.001 0.091 0.234 0.090 0.105 0.036 0.028 Bal.
Welding wire 0.068 0.260 1.320 0.011 0.019 - 0.370 0.450 0.110 - 0.002 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of MS X70 pipeline steel and welding wire (mass fraction / %)
Fig.1  photo of welded MS X70 pipeline steel (Regions I, II and III show the base steel, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal, respectively)
Fig.2  OM images of weld MS X70 pipeline steel (P—pearlite, F—ferrite, B—bainite)

(a) base metal (b) HAZ (c) weld metal

Fig.3  Vickers microhardness profile of the welded joint of MS X70 pipeline steel
Sample CSR CLR CTR
Base metal
Welded joint
0.43
0.50
13.00
22.95
5.35
12.30
Table 2  Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility parameters of the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded joint
Fig.4  Discharging current curves of the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded joint
Fig.5  Hydrogen permeation curves of the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded joint
Sample J / (molcm-1s-1) Deff / (cm2s-1) C0 / (molcm-3)
Base metal 19.40×10-11 1.53×10-6 1.27×10-5
Welded joint 6.07×10-11 0.93×10-6 0.40×10-5
Table 3  Hydrogen permeation data for tested steels
Fig.6  IPF color maps in MS X70 pipeline steel (a) and its welded joint (b) (ND—normal direction, TD—transverse direction)
Fig.7  Grain boundary maps in MS X70 pipeline steel (a) and its welded joint (b) (Green lines indicate low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs), yellow lines indicate medium angle grain boundaries (MAGBs) and red lines indicate high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs), respectively)
Fig.8  Volume fractions of LAGBs, MAGBs, HAGBs and coincidence site lattice (CSL) in the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded join
Fig.9  CSL boundaries histogram in MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded join
[1] Zhou C S, Zheng S Q, Chen C F, et al.The effect of the partial pressure of H2S on the permeation of hydrogen in low carbon pipeline steel[J]. Corros. Sci., 2013, 67: 184
[2] Al-Mansour M, Alfantazi A M, El-boujdaini M. Sulfide stress cracking resistance of API-X100 high strength low alloy steel[J]. Mater. Des., 2009, 30: 4088
[3] Hejazi D, Haq A J, Yazdipour N, et al.Effect of manganese content and microstructure on the susceptibility of X70 pipeline steel to hydrogen cracking[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2012, A551: 40
[4] Zhou C S, Huang Q Y, Guo Q, et al.Sulphide stress cracking behaviour of the dissimilar metal welded joint of X60 pipeline steel and Inconel 625 alloy[J]. Corros. Sci., 2016, 110: 242
[5] Olden V, Alvaro A, Akselsen O M.Hydrogen diffusion and hydrogen influenced critical stress intensity in an API X70 pipeline steel welded joint—Experiments and FE simulations[J]. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2012, 37: 11474
[6] Zhao W M, Zhao T M, Zhao Y J, et al.Hydrogen permeation and embrittlement susceptibility of X80 welded joint under high-pressure coal gas environment[J]. Corros. Sci., 2016, 111: 84
[7] Forero A B, Ponciano J A C, Bott I S. Susceptibility of pipeline girth welds to hydrogen embrittlement and sulphide stress cracking[J]. Mater. Corros., 2014, 65: 531
[8] Dong C F, Xiao K, Liu Z Y, et al.Hydrogen induced cracking of X80 pipeline steel[J]. Int. J. Min. Metall. Mater., 2010, 17: 579
[9] Park G T, Koh S U, Jung H G, et al.Effect of microstructure on the hydrogen trapping efficiency and hydrogen induced cracking of linepipe steel[J]. Corros. Sci., 2008, 50: 1865
[10] Chang K D, Gu J L, Fang H S, et al.Effects of heat-treatment process of a novel bainite/martensite dual-phase high strength steel on its susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement[J]. ISIJ Int., 2001, 41: 1397
[11] Arafin M A, Szpunar J A.Effect of bainitic microstructure on the susceptibility of pipeline steels to hydrogen induced cracking[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2011, A528: 4927
[12] Shi X B, Yan W, Wang W, et al.Effect of microstructure on hydrogen induced cracking behavior of a high deformability pipeline steel[J]. J. Iron Steel. Res., 2015, 22: 937
[13] Hardie D, Charles E A, Lopez A H.Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength pipeline steels[J]. Corros. Sci., 2006, 48: 4378
[14] Huang F, Liu S, Liu J, et al.Sulfide stress cracking resistance of the welded WDL690D HSLA steel in H2S environment[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2014, A591: 159
[15] Huang F, Li X G, Liu J, et al.Hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility and hydrogen trapping efficiency of different microstructure X80 pipeline steel[J]. J. Mater. Sci., 2011, 46: 715
[16] Huang F, Liu J, Deng Z J, et al.Effect of microstructure and inclusions on hydrogen induced cracking susceptibility and hydrogen trapping efficiency of X120 pipeline steel[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2010, A527: 6997
[17] Zhang X L, Zhuang C J, Ji L K, et al.Effective particle size of high grade pipeline steels[J]. Mater. Mech. Eng., 2007, 31(3): 4(张小立, 庄传晶, 吉玲康等. 高钢级管线钢的有效晶粒尺寸[J]. 机械工程材料, 2007, 31(3): 4)
[18] Dong J M, Mao Q Y, Bi Z Y, et al.Analysis on microstructure and impact toughness of X100 and X80 pipeline steel[J]. Welded Pipe Tube, 2014, 37(12): 16(董俊明, 毛秋英, 毕宗岳等. X100和X80管线钢组织与冲击性能分析[J]. 焊管, 2014, 37(12): 16)
[19] Saleh A A, HejazI D, Gazder A A, et al. Investigation of the effect of electrolytic hydrogen charging of X70 steel: II. Microstructural and crystallographic analyses of the formation of hydrogen induced cracks and blisters[J]. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41: 12424
[20] Sun Y W, Chen J Z, Liu J.Study on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of 1000 MPa grade 0Cr16Ni5Mo steel[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2015, 51: 1315(孙永伟, 陈继志, 刘军. 1000 MPa级0Cr16Ni5Mo钢的氢脆敏感性研究[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51: 1315)
[21] Masoumi M, Silva C C, de Abreu H F G. Effect of crystallographic orientations on the hydrogen-induced cracking resistance improvement of API 5L X70 pipeline steel under various thermomechanical processing[J]. Corros. Sci., 2016, 111: 121
[22] Ma H C, Liu Z Y, Du C W, et al.Stress corrosion cracking of E690 steel as a welded joint in a simulated marine atmosphere containing sulphur dioxide[J]. Corros. Sci., 2015, 100: 627
[23] Haq A J, Muzaka K, Dunne D P, et al.Effect of microstructure and composition on hydrogen permeation in X70 pipeline steels[J]. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38: 2544
[24] Mohtadi-Bonab M A, Eskandari M, Rahman K M M, et al. An extensive study of hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility in an API X60 sour service pipeline steel[J]. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41: 4185
[25] Marchetti L, Herms E, Laghoutaris P, et al.Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of tempered 9%Cr-1%Mo steel[J]. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2011, 36: 15880
[26] Peng X H, Liu J, Huang F, et al.Effect of microstructure on hydrogen-induced cracking propagation and hydrogen trapping efficiency of pipeline steel[J]. Corros. Prot., 2013, 34: 882(彭先华, 刘静, 黄峰等. 微观组织对管线钢氢致裂纹扩展方式及氢捕获效率的影响[J]. 腐蚀与防护, 2013, 34: 882)
[27] Mohtadi-Bonab M A, Eskandari M, Szpunar J A. Texture, local misorientation, grain boundary and recrystallization fraction in pipeline steels related to hydrogen induced cracking[J]. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2015, A620: 97
[28] Hu C L, Xia S, Li H, et al.Effect of grain boundary network on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking of 304 stainless steel[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2011, 47: 939(胡长亮, 夏爽, 李慧等. 晶界网络特征对304不锈钢晶间应力腐蚀开裂的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2011, 47: 939)
[29] Mohtadi-Bonab M A, Karimdadashi R, Eskandari M, et al. Hydrogen-induced cracking assessment in pipeline steels through permeation and crystallographic texture measurements[J]. J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25: 1781
[30] Zhang T M, Wang Y, Zhao W M, et al.Hydrogen permeation parameters of X80 steel and welding HAZ under high pressure coal gas environment[J]. Acta Metall. Sin., 2015, 51: 1101(张体明, 王勇, 赵卫民等. 高压煤制气环境下X80钢及热影响区的氢渗透参数研究[J]. 金属学报, 2015, 51: 1101)
[31] Arafin M A, Szpunar J A.A new understanding of intergranular stress corrosion cracking resistance of pipeline steel through grain boundary character and crystallographic texture studies[J]. Corros. Sci., 2009, 51: 119
[1] YANG Jie, WANG Lei. Effect and Optimal Design of the Material Constraint in the DMWJ of Nuclear Power Plants[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(6): 840-848.
[2] LI Xiucheng,SUN Mingyu,ZHAO Jingxiao,WANG Xuelin,SHANG Chengjia. Quantitative Crystallographic Characterization of Boundaries in Ferrite-Bainite/Martensite Dual-Phase Steels[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(4): 653-660.
[3] CHEN Fang,LI Yadong,YANG Jian,TANG Xiao,LI Yan. Corrosion Behavior of X80 Steel Welded Joint in Simulated Natural Gas Condensate Solutions[J]. 金属学报, 2020, 56(2): 137-147.
[4] LIU Yang,WANG Lei,SONG Xiu,LIANG Taosha. Microstructure and High-Temperature Deformation Behavior of Dissimilar Superalloy Welded Joint of DD407/IN718[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(9): 1221-1230.
[5] Xin LI,Yuecheng DONG,Zhenhua DAN,Hui CHANG,Zhigang FANG,Yanhua GUO. Corrosion Behavior of Ultrafine Grained Pure Ti Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(8): 967-975.
[6] Yadong LI,Qiang LI,Xiao TANG,Yan LI. Reconstruction and Characterization of Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of X80 Pipeline Steel Welded Joints[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(6): 801-810.
[7] Dejian SUN,Lin LIU,Taiwen HUANG,Jiachen ZHANG,Kaili CAO,Jun ZHANG,Haijun SU,Hengzhi FU. Dendrite Growth and Orientation Evolution in the Platform of Simplified Turbine Blade for Nickel-Based Single Crystal Superalloys[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(5): 619-626.
[8] Qingdong XU, Kejian LI, Zhipeng CAI, Yao WU. Effect of Pulsed Magnetic Field on the Microstructure of TC4 Titanium Alloy and Its Mechanism[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(4): 489-495.
[9] Timing ZHANG, Weimin ZHAO, Wei JIANG, Yonglin WANG, Min YANG. Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in X80 Welded Joint Under the Combined Effect of Residual Stress and Microstructure Inhomogeneity[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(2): 258-266.
[10] XIE Guang, ZHANG Shaohua, ZHENG Wei, ZHANG Gong, SHEN Jian, LU Yuzhang, HAO Hongquan, WANG Li, LOU Langhong, ZHANG Jian. Formation and Evolution of Low Angle Grain Boundary in Large-Scale Single Crystal Superalloy Blade[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(12): 1527-1536.
[11] ZHANG Min,JIA Fang,CHENG Kangkang,LI Jie,XU Shuai,TONG Xiongwei. Influence of Quenching and Tempering on Microstructure and Properties of Welded Joints of G520 Martensitic Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(11): 1379-1387.
[12] Xiting ZHONG, Lei WANG, Feng LIU. Study on Formation Mechanism of Necklace Structure in Discontinuous Dynamic Recrystallization of Incoloy 028[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(7): 969-980.
[13] Tingguang LIU, Shuang XIA, Qin BAI, Bangxin ZHOU. Morphological Characteristics and Size Distributions of Three-Dimensional Grains and Grain Boundaries in 316L Stainless Steel[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(6): 868-876.
[14] Xirong LIU, Kai ZHANG, Shuang XIA, Wenqing LIU, Hui LI. Effects of Triple Junction and Grain Boundary Characters on the Morphology of Carbide Precipitation in Alloy 690[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(3): 404-410.
[15] Guangming XIE, Zongyi MA, Peng XUE, Zongan LUO, Guodong WANG. Effects of Tool Rotation Rates on Superplastic Deformation Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Mg-Zn-Y-Zr Alloy[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(12): 1745-1755.
No Suggested Reading articles found!