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Acta Metall Sin  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (12): 1579-1587    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00101
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Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Susceptibility and Hydrogen Trapping Efficiency of the Welded MS X70 Pipeline Steel in H2S Environment
Xiaoyu ZHAO, Feng HUANG(), Lijun GAN, Qian HU, Jing LIU
The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, China
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Pipeline steels for sour oil and gas containing H2S generally suffer from either hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC). Oil and gas containing high concentration H2S are noxious to pipeline steels because of the hydrogen-induced corrosion. In this study, HIC susceptibility of welded MS X70 pipeline steels was evaluated in NACE “A” solution at room temperature. Meanwhile, microstructure and regions near a HIC crack in the MS X70 base steel and its welded joint were analyzed through OM, SEM and EBSD. The hydrogen trapping efficiency was also investigated by measuring the permeability (J) and the effective hydrogen diffusivity (Deff). The results showed that both base metal and welded joint were highly susceptible to HIC and the later steel sample was more vulnerable than the former. This higher susceptibility could be primarily attributed to the following effects: the higher hydrogen trapping efficiency of bainitic lath microstructure in the welded joint; the more low angle grain boundary in the welded joint also made it easier to crack by improving the hydrogen trapping efficiency of high angle grain boundary; the less amount of coincidence site lattice grain boundary and Σ13b、Σ29b lead to higher HIC susceptibility by decreasing the resistance to crack of high angle grain boundary.

Key words:  MS X70 pipeline steel      welded joint      grain boundary      hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)      hydrogen trapping efficiency     
Received:  28 March 2017     
ZTFLH:  TG172.3  
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51571154) and Science and Technology Support Program of Hubei Province (No.2015BAA083)

Cite this article: 

Xiaoyu ZHAO, Feng HUANG, Lijun GAN, Qian HU, Jing LIU. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking Susceptibility and Hydrogen Trapping Efficiency of the Welded MS X70 Pipeline Steel in H2S Environment. Acta Metall Sin, 2017, 53(12): 1579-1587.

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Sample C Si Mn P S Cu Cr Ni Mo Nb V Fe
Base metal 0.046 0.257 1.109 0.007 0.001 0.091 0.234 0.090 0.105 0.036 0.028 Bal.
Welding wire 0.068 0.260 1.320 0.011 0.019 - 0.370 0.450 0.110 - 0.002 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of MS X70 pipeline steel and welding wire (mass fraction / %)
Fig.1  photo of welded MS X70 pipeline steel (Regions I, II and III show the base steel, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal, respectively)
Fig.2  OM images of weld MS X70 pipeline steel (P—pearlite, F—ferrite, B—bainite)

(a) base metal (b) HAZ (c) weld metal

Fig.3  Vickers microhardness profile of the welded joint of MS X70 pipeline steel
Base metal
Welded joint
Table 2  Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility parameters of the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded joint
Fig.4  Discharging current curves of the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded joint
Fig.5  Hydrogen permeation curves of the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded joint
Sample J / (molcm-1s-1) Deff / (cm2s-1) C0 / (molcm-3)
Base metal 19.40×10-11 1.53×10-6 1.27×10-5
Welded joint 6.07×10-11 0.93×10-6 0.40×10-5
Table 3  Hydrogen permeation data for tested steels
Fig.6  IPF color maps in MS X70 pipeline steel (a) and its welded joint (b) (ND—normal direction, TD—transverse direction)
Fig.7  Grain boundary maps in MS X70 pipeline steel (a) and its welded joint (b) (Green lines indicate low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs), yellow lines indicate medium angle grain boundaries (MAGBs) and red lines indicate high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs), respectively)
Fig.8  Volume fractions of LAGBs, MAGBs, HAGBs and coincidence site lattice (CSL) in the MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded join
Fig.9  CSL boundaries histogram in MS X70 pipeline steel and its welded join
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