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金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (10): 1243-1250    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00497
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预循环应力对高速列车关键结构用铝合金材料疲劳裂纹扩展行为的影响
张啸尘,孟维迎(),邹德芳,周鹏,石怀涛
沈阳建筑大学机械工程学院 沈阳 110168
Effect of Pre-Cyclic Stress on Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Key Structural Al Alloy Materials Used in High Speed Trains
ZHANG Xiaochen,MENG Weiying(),ZOU Defang,ZHOU Peng,SHI Huaitao
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
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摘要: 

对服役多年的高速列车关键结构用铝合金材料进行断裂力学性能测试,探究其稳态扩展区域和近门槛值区域的疲劳裂纹扩展行为,阐释服役材料力学行为的变化规律。鉴于服役材料疲劳裂纹扩展行为的折线特征,开展不同水平预循环应力作用下的断裂力学实验研究,剖析预循环应力对材料断裂力学性能“锻炼”效应的影响,建立合理的寿命预测模型,并与实测数据进行对比。研究表明:服役材料在稳态裂纹扩展阶段的疲劳裂纹扩展行为呈折线特征,近门槛值区域的延迟扩展行为是促使折线现象产生的原因;经历预循环应力作用后,材料疲劳裂纹扩展速率与应力强度因子范围(da/dNK)的关系曲线在稳态裂纹扩展的初期阶段呈现类似服役材料的折转行为;不同水平的预循环应力对材料断裂力学性能的“锻炼”效果不同,存在能够使材料达到最佳“锻炼”效果的预循环应力水平;对于折转型da/dNK关系曲线,本工作所建立的计算模型能够更加准确地预测材料的疲劳裂纹扩展寿命。

关键词 高速列车疲劳裂纹扩展行为预循环应力“锻炼”效应疲劳寿命预测    
Abstract

The complex cyclic loading is a "potential killer" affecting the service security of high speed trains. It is necessary to investigate the influence of cyclic loading on vehicle structures and explore potential methods to improve the service strength and life of structural materials. In this work, the mechanical property tests for key structural materials (Al alloy) that experienced years of service were described, the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behavior at different stages were analyzed, and the changing pattern of mechanical behavior of material was demonstrated over time. Since the specimens showed turning characters on FCP behavior, the mechanical property tests for materials that subjected to different levels of pre-cyclic stress (PCS) were further carried out to analyses the "coaxing" effects of PCS and establish a more reasonable life prediction model for materials. It is found that a turning phenomenon or "turning" point is clearly shown in the early stage of the fitted curves for the specimens with service experience, which is mainly due to the delayed extension behavior in the region near the threshold; the curves of crack propagation rates and stress intensity factor (da/dNK) of specimens subjected to PCS show a similar turning phenomenon at the initial stage of steady-state crack growth to that of specimens with service experience; the "coaxing" effect of PCS on material is different for different PCS levels, and there is an optimal PCS for the "coaxing" effect; the model proposed in this study has higher accuracy in FCP life prediction for the da/dNK curves with "turning" character.

Key wordshigh speed train    fatigue crack propagation behavior    pre-cyclic stress    "coaxing" effect    fatigue life prediction
收稿日期: 2018-11-01     
ZTFLH:  V252  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(51705341);国家自然科学基金项目(51675353);辽宁省自然科学基金项目(20180540137);辽宁省自然科学基金项目(2019-BS-198)
通讯作者: 孟维迎     E-mail: wymeng@sjzu.edu.cn
Corresponding author: Weiying MENG     E-mail: wymeng@sjzu.edu.cn
作者简介: 张啸尘,男,1985年生,博士

引用本文:

张啸尘, 孟维迎, 邹德芳, 周鹏, 石怀涛. 预循环应力对高速列车关键结构用铝合金材料疲劳裂纹扩展行为的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(10): 1243-1250.
Xiaochen ZHANG, Weiying MENG, Defang ZOU, Peng ZHOU, Huaitao SHI. Effect of Pre-Cyclic Stress on Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Key Structural Al Alloy Materials Used in High Speed Trains. Acta Metall Sin, 2019, 55(10): 1243-1250.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00497      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2019/V55/I10/1243

图1  高速列车端部底架实物图和有限元数值分析及取样图
图2  标准三点弯曲试样
图3  稳态裂纹扩展阶段裂纹扩展速率与应力强度因子范围(da/dN-ΔK)关系曲线
图4  考虑近门槛值区域da/dN-ΔK关系曲线
图5  预循环应力作用后稳态裂纹扩展阶段da/dN-ΔK关系曲线
图6  不同应力强度因子范围所对应的疲劳裂纹扩展速率
图7  疲劳裂纹扩展实验数据与理论Paris曲线结果
图8  分段拟合示意图

PCS

MPa

ΔK at the turning point

MPa·m1/2

Whole fittingPiecewise fitting (curve 1)Piecewise fitting (curve 2)
lgCmlgCmlgCm
0--7.391863.44199-7.391863.44199-7.391863.44199
3010.41-7.751523.59695-9.411635.33065-7.520363.41039
6011.55-8.162783.89175-9.958255.72909-7.796213.60007
9010.81-7.589243.49789-9.775015.77199-7.307433.27054
12010.22-7.419453.38241-8.927495.00362-7.121193.14091
表1  Paris公式分段拟合得到的材料常数
图9  疲劳裂纹扩展寿命预测结果对比图
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