Pipeline steels for sour oil and gas containing H2S generally suffer from either hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC). Oil and gas containing high concentration H2S are noxious to pipeline steels because of the hydrogen-induced corrosion. In this study, HIC susceptibility of welded MS X70 pipeline steels was evaluated in NACE “A” solution at room temperature. Meanwhile, microstructure and regions near a HIC crack in the MS X70 base steel and its welded joint were analyzed through OM, SEM and EBSD. The hydrogen trapping efficiency was also investigated by measuring the permeability (J∞) and the effective hydrogen diffusivity (Deff). The results showed that both base metal and welded joint were highly susceptible to HIC and the later steel sample was more vulnerable than the former. This higher susceptibility could be primarily attributed to the following effects: the higher hydrogen trapping efficiency of bainitic lath microstructure in the welded joint; the more low angle grain boundary in the welded joint also made it easier to crack by improving the hydrogen trapping efficiency of high angle grain boundary; the less amount of coincidence site lattice grain boundary and Σ13b、Σ29b lead to higher HIC susceptibility by decreasing the resistance to crack of high angle grain boundary.
Aluminium alloys were widely applied in rail transit, ships and aerospace owing to their unique properties, such as low density, high strength and stiffness, outstanding corrosion resistance and low temperature performance. As a type of structure material, aluminium alloy joining was inevitable. However, these alloys were often considered very difficult to weld using traditional fusion welding technique since the welding seams were often accompanied with metallurgical defects, large deformation and stress. Friction stir welding (FSW), an innovative solid-state welding technology invented at the welding institute (TWI), was seen by designers as an effective joining methods in welding aluminium alloys due to low heat input, small stress-strain and environment friendly. In this work, 0.8 mm thick plate of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy was successfully welded by use of high rotational speed fiction stir welding technology. The microstructure and mechanical property of the butt joints prepared by high rotational speed friction stir welding were analysed in detail. The results show that the well surface topography and excellent bonding interface existed in the nugget zone (NZ) were observed. Both of the microhardness of the weld seam was lower than that of the substrate. The lowest microhardness of the butt joints located between the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). Compared with the conventional rotational speed, the number of β-Mg2Si, Al2CuMg and Al8Fe2Si precipitated phases existed in the NZ was more, which made the microhardness in the NZ improved significantly. The rod-shaped precipitates (Mg2Si) have the greatest influence on the microhardness. The excellent mechanical properties were obtained at the rotational speed of 8000 r/min and welding speed of 1500 mm/min. The maximum tensile strength was 301.8 MPa, which was 85.8% of the as-received 6061-T6 (351.7 MPa). And the toughness-brittleness fracture mode appeared.
In the present technology, the brazing of Si3N4 needs a reactive transition layers to resolve the non-wetting problem of usual metal fillers. Aluminum could wet Si3N4 without reaction but the brazing is very difficult due to wetting temperature above 1000 ℃. In this work, the wetting effect of sputtered Al films on Si3N4 and its physics essence were revealed. Based on this, the brazing of Si3N4 ceramic with Al or Al-Ni film fillers was realized near their melting temperature. The results showed that the seams of brazing joints with direct sputtered Al on Si3N4 film were well-stacked and less defects, and well metallurgically bonded to ceramic without reactive transition layers. The shear strength of pure Al/Si3N4 joint reached 106 MPa. The strength increased to 148 MPa with adding 1.0%Ni into film filler due hypoeutectic structure in the seam. With further increasing Ni content to 3.0%, the eutectic structure of the seam slightly decreased the strength of joint to 132 MPa. These joints above all fractured in joint seams. Moreover, the Al-1.0%Ni film filler first sputtered Ni layer was compared. Its brazing joint fractured at the interface between seam and ceramic and the shear strength decreased to only 81 MPa. This comparsion revealed the "wetting" effect of the bombardment of energetic sputtered Al particles. This effect still existed after filler melting and the direct brazing of Si3N4 ceramic without reactive transition layers was realized.
P92 steel is a typical 9%~12%Cr ferrite heat-resistant steel with good high temperature creep resistance, relatively low linear expansion coefficient and excellent corrosion resistance, so it is one of important structural materials used in supercritical thermal power plants. Fusion welding technology has been widely used to assemble the parts in thermal power plant. When the supercritical unit is in service, its parts are constantly subjected to combination of tensile, bending, twisting and impact loads under high temperature and high pressure, and many problems such as creep, fatigue and brittle fracture often occur. It has been recognized that welding residual stress has a significant impact on creep, fatigue and brittle fracture, so it is necessary to study the residual stress of P92 steel welded joints. The evolution and formation mechanism of welding residual stress in P92 steel joints under multiple thermal cycles were investigated in this work. Based on SYSWELD software, a computational approach considering the couplings among thermal, microstructure and mechanics was developed to simulate welding residual stress in P92 steel joints. Using the developed computational tool, the evolution of residual stress in Satoh test specimens was studied, and welding residual stress distribution in double-pass welded joints was calculated. In the numerical models, the influences of volume change, yield strength variation and plasticity induced by phase transformation on welding residual stress were taken into account in details. Meanwhile, the hole-drilling method and XRD method were employed to measure the residual stress distribution in the double-pass welded joints. The simulated results match the experimental measurements well, and the comparison between measurements and predictions suggests that the computational approach developed by the current study can more accurately predict welding residual stress in multi-pass P92 steel joints. The simulated results show that the longitudinal residual stress distribution around the fusion zone has a clear tension-compression pattern. Compressive longitudinal residual stresses generated in the fusion zone and heat affected-zone (HAZ) in each pass, while tensile stresses produced near the HAZs. In addition, the numerical simulation also suggests that the transverse constraint has a large influence on the transverse residual stress, while it has an insignificant effect on the longitudinal residual stress.
Compared with the low heat input welding steel structures, the high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel structures after high heat input welding keep high temperature with longer time, and the cooling speed is slower, then the austenite crystal grains of coarse-grained heat affected zones (CGHAZ) grow up sharply, and coarse upper bainite (UB) and ferrite side plate (FSP) are generated easily in original austenite crystal, thus toughness of CGHAZ deteriorates seriously. At present, the approach of improving toughness of CGHAZ is to produce massive interleaved acicular ferrite (AF) in the original austenite crystal. However, with the improvement of welding capability for thick plate, welding heat input will be greater, and the hold time of high temperature will be more prolonged. In this case, AF coarsens much seriously, thus the improvement of CGHAZ toughness is limited severely. In this work, a new method for improving the toughness of CGHAZ in high heat input welding steels by studying the distribution map of HAZ impact value was proposed. This new method changes the grain boundary ferrite (GBF) and AF of the CGHAZ to polygonal ferrite (PF) of the fine-grained heat affected zones (FGHAZ) at same peak temperature, which improves the toughness of CGHAZ significantly. Comparing the microstructures and toughness of CGHAZ in Ti-V-N and Al-Ti-V-N micro alloy welding steels, the transformation condition and nucleation mechanism of PF in the CGHAZ of Al-Ti-V-N steel were analyzed. It is found that micron oxide inclusions is a key factor to inducing the nucleation of massive PF in CGHAZ, and nanoscale carbonitride is a key factor to draging and pinning the grain boundaries of austenite and ferrite. Therefore, the effective combination of above two factors guarantees the generation of a large number of PF, which improves the impact toughness greatly at low temperature.
It has been recognized that low temperature martensitic transformation can reduce harmful tensile stress and generate beneficial compressive stress in weld zone of single pass welded joints. The influence of martensitic transformation is even greater in 9%Cr steel because of its high hardenability and low transformation temperature (about 100~400 ℃). However, compressive stress was confined in certain parts of weld zone in multi-pass butt-welded 9%Cr steel pipes. In this work, stress evolution in a multi-pass butt-welded 9%Cr steel pipe was predicted using Abaqus software, and the effect of martensitic transformation was further investigated. The simulated results show that the overall pattern for the axial and hoop stresses appears to be similar, despite the lower magnitudes for axial stress. The maximum compressive stress was found in the final weld pass, and the maximum tensile stress was formed in the weld pass adjacent to the final weld pass. Stress in weld passes adjacent to weld root is relatively low. Tensile stress due to thermal contraction in the final weld pass was relieved by martensitic transformation and clear compressive stress was formed. However, little effect of martensitic transformation was found on the significant tensile residual stress in weld passes adjacent to the final weld pass. The final weld pass has the primary effect on the formation of residual stress. Compressive stress was indeed generated by martensitic transformation in former weld pass, however it was relieved by weld thermal cycle of latter weld pass. As a result, the effect of martensitic transformation appears to be confined to the final weld pass. The influence of martensitic transformation is greater around outer surface than that around inner surface.
2A14 aluminum alloy is the important raw materials of aerospace, which belongs to the heat treatment aluminum alloy. Friction stir welding (FSW) can weld aluminum alloy with high quality, and can avoid the pores and cracks of fusion welding effectively. In order to obtain better mechanical properties of FSW joints, the surface nanocrystallization method is introduced into FSW technology. By means of the hybrid surface nanocrystallization (HSNC) method of both supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB) and surface mechanical rolling treatment (SMRT), a smooth gradient nanostructured (GNS) layer was formed on the surface of 2A14 aluminum alloy before FSW. The FSW joints microstructure and fracture morphology of the original and HSNC specimens were researched by OM, SEM and TEM. The results showed that nanostructure layer zone (NLZ) was formed when GNS with shape similar to the "S" line was distributed in the thermal-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and the nugget zone (NZ) of the HSNC specimen. The lowest micro-hardness and fracture position of the original specimen occurred on the TMAZ of advancing side (AS). The lowest micro-hardness and fracture position of the HSNC specimen occurred on the NZ. The tensile strength of HSNC specimen was 6.4% higher than the original sample. The elongation of HSNC specimen was 14.1% more than the original specimen. The fracture mode of both specimens was toughness fracture. The fracture morphology of the HSNC was isometric dimple when the fracture morphology of original specimen were non-isometric dimple and avulsion dimple. Analysis showed that the NLZ of the FSW joints was beneficial to improving the strength and the plastic deformation capability simultaneously.
As the main corrosion form of coal- or heavy oil-fired boilers, dew point corrosion occurs when corrosive gases (SO3, HCl, NO2, et al) are cooled and converted to condensed acids. The condensed acids (H2SO4, HCl and HNO3) are much corrosive to steel, causing corrosion damage to plant materials. The service temperature is designed lower and lower to improve energy efficiency recently, which makes dew point corrosion more and more serious. Q315NS steel produced by appropriate alloy design is much suitable for those parts vulnerable to dew point corrosion in power and petrochemical industry due to its excellent corrosion resistance in H2SO4 solution. As an efficient and low-cost process, welding is an essential process in the utilization of Q315NS. The corrosion mechanism of the heat affected zone is much complex due to the presence of microstructure gradients, which is largely determined by the welding thermal cycle. However, there is little research elucidating the effect of welding thermal cycle on corrosion behavior of Q315NS steel in H2SO4 solution. In this work, the microstructure evolution and corrosion behaviour in the 50%H2SO4 (mass fraction) solution of welding heat affected zones of Q315NS was investigated by comparison with base metal using welding thermal simulation technique, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the microstructures of ferrite and pearlite are observed in base metal, fine-grained region and incomplete recrystallization region, while coarse-grained region consists of granular bainite. All the equivalent circuits of Q315NS with or without welding thermal cycle contain a resistor of corrosion product and a capacitor of electric double layer, and all specimens have passivation behavior. The base metal and the incomplete recrystallization region have the lowest corrosion current density and the largest charge-transfer resistance, which means the best corrosion resistance, while the coarse-grained region has the highest corrosion current density and the least charge-transfer resistance. Rod-like shaped corrosion product was formed by deposition on the surface of the coarse-grained region specimen while a porous-structured corrosion product was formed on the surface of other specimens.
The improvement of steam parameters in fossil power plants requires the development of new kinds of 9% Cr martensitic heat-resistant steels, among which FB2 steel is a 100×10-6 (mass fraction) boron-containing steel and mainly used for manufacturing components with thick walls operating at high temperatures above 600 ℃. In the alloy system of martensitic heat-resistant steels, boron plays an important role in suppressing type IV crack of weld joints by the formation of heat affected zone (HAZ) with no fine grains in the normalized and intercritical zones, where there exhibit fine grains in conventional 9%Cr heat-resistant steels with no boron such as P91 steel. In this work, the formation process of HAZ in FB2 steel was investigated. The microstructures before and after thermal simulation were compared using OM and SEM. It was concluded that the austenization of FB2 steel at rapid heating rates (≥100 ℃/s) took place by shear mechanism, demonstrating austenite memory effect; while at slow heating rates (≤5 ℃/s), the austenization was by atom short range diffusion mechanism, without austenite memory effect. The special phase transformation of austenization is the main cause for the formation of HAZ with no coarsened grain in the overheated zone. Based on the previous results reported by other researchers, a preliminary model was proposed to describe how boron atoms change the austenite transformation type of FB2 steel during heating process, which developed the previous ideas about the phenomenon.
Cu/Al brazing has good prospect for applications in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry. A suitable filler metal is the key of Cu/Al brazing. The chemical and physical properties of the filler metal have great influence on the brazing process and parameters. And the strength of the brazing joint is closely related to the properties of the filler metal and the brazing process. While the previous studies have not developed a kind of Cu/Al brazing filler metal which can achieve a tough joint at a low brazing temperature. In this work, the Al-5.6Si-25.2Ge filler metal was first used to braze Cu/Al dissimilar metals, and the melting characteristics of the filler metal, spreading wettability, Cu interfacial structure and strength of brazed joint were investigated systematically. Additionally, the common Zn-22Al filler metal was also used for comparison. The results show that the Al-5.6Si-25.2Ge filler metal possesses low melting temperature (about 541 ℃) and excellent spreading wettability on Cu and Al base metals. The interfacial structure of Al-5.6Si-25.2Ge/Cu was CuAl2/CuAl/Cu3Al2. The thickness of planar CuAl and Cu3Al2 phases was only 1~2 μm, and the thickness of cellular CuAl2 phase was about 3 μm. The interfacial structure of Zn-22Al/Cu was CuAl2/CuAl/Cu9Al4, but the average thickness of the CuAl2 layer was up to 15 μm. The test results of the shearing strength show that the shearing strength of the Cu/Al joint brazed with Zn-22Al filler metal was only 42.7 MPa, but the shearing strength brazed with Al-5.6Si-25.2Ge filler metal was higher (53.4 MPa).
Variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) is a kind of source to provide heat and force at welding process. It can remove the oxide layer with high melting point on the surface of base metal using the cleaning action of cathode spots (the special property of VPPA). So variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) is a very suitable method to join aluminum alloys which always have extremely tenacious surface oxides. It is great significant to understand clearly the physical characteristics of VPPA for predicting welding defects and making the welding process stable. Therefore, modeling and simulating VPPA are necessary and helpful to understand welding process theory and promote its application further. In this work, a three dimensional transient calculated model of VPPA was established. To describe the electrical characteristics of VPPA at different polarities, a sequential electric conducting model was proposed. With finite difference method, the temperature field, fluid flow and current density of VPPA were solved out. And the distribution of plasma arc pressure on the anode surface, as well as its evolution process as the time going on were analyzed. Arc pressure was measured experimentally to verify the calculated model. The results show that the arc temperature field of electrode negative (EN) is more compressed than that of electrode positive (EP). The range of high temperature at EN is a little larger. Arc pressure and current density of EN at central area are both higher than EP. Nonetheless, the magnitude of these values begins to reverse at a certain distance to center in radial direction. Moreover, the arc pressure rapidly responses to welding current. Pressure at EP is about 20% lower than that of EN. The pressure reduces to the lowest value when the current pass through 0. After that, while the current reaches to normal value, the pressure will immediately impact to a larger value, then quickly recover to an average value. Otherwise, to compare the experimental results with calculated results of arc images and arc pressure, they are in good agreement with each other.
The Q235A mild steel and AISI304 austenite stainless steel were subjected to solid diffusion welding by vacuum diffusion bonding approach to investigate the influence of welding temperature on the interfacial morphology, microstructural constituents and mechanical properties. The results show that the single ferrite layer (zone II) and carbon-enriched layer (zone III) were formed nearby the bonding interface of Q235A mild steel and AISI304 austenite stainless steel, and heterogeneous microstructure on both sides of interface formed a common grain boundary by diffusion. The strength and toughness of the bonded joint reached the highest values, for welding temperature of approximately 850 ℃, welding pressure of beyond 10 MPa, and welding time of approximately 60 min, which was larger than those of the Q235A mild steel layer. Otherwise, the Cr23C6 carbide easily formed at a relatively lower temperature (≤800 ℃), whereas the secondary carbides and intermetallic compounds formed at a relatively higher temperature (≥900 ℃). Both cases would dramatically deteriorate the strength-toughness of the bonded joint. Therefore, it was proposed that the brittle precipitate phases can be effectively avoided by controlling the welding temperature to approximately 850 ℃, thus ensuring the resulting performance of the bonded joint.
The energy density of chip is becoming increasingly higher with the power electronic devices developing toward miniaturization, high power and integration, which will lead a higher operating temperature. However, the traditional Sn-based soldering process fails to meet the elevated temperature. Transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering, which can form high-melting-point joints at relatively low temperatures, has been proven to be a promising bonding method for solving this technological challenge. Nevertheless, a common drawback for TLP soldering is that it will consume a very long time for the complete formation of intermetallic joints, up to tens of minutes, which will lead extra thermal stress and seriously negative effects on the reliability of packaging systems. Recently, this technological puzzle has been proven to be solved by a novel ultrasonic-assisted TLP soldering process, in which the ultrarapid formation of complete intermetallic joints was achieved due to the accelerated diffusion of Cu from the substrates into the molten Sn interlayer under the complex sonochemical effects of acoustic field on the interfacial reaction. In this study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of complete Cu-Sn intermetallic joints ultrarapidly formed by ultrasonic-assisted TLP soldering process were investigated. The sandwich Cu/Sn/Cu system was placed on the heating platform, and then the ultrasonic vibrations and the bonding force were applied on it. The horizontal ultrasonic frequency, pressure, power, bonding temperature and time were fixed as 20 kHz, 0.5 MPa, 300 W, 250 ℃ and 5 s. In summary, the complete intermetallic joints composed of Cu6Sn5 interlayer with a thickness about 15 μm and Cu3Sn boundary layers with a thickness about 1 μm were ultrarapidly formed by ultrasonic-assisted TLP soldering process. The formed Cu6Sn5 grains were remarkably refined to be with an average grain size less than 5 μm. Compared with the intermatllic joints formed by traditional TLP soldering process, the resulted intermetallic joints performed more uniform mechanical properties with elastic modulus and hardness of about 123 GPa and 6.0 GPa respectively, as well as a higher reliability with a shear strength of 60 MPa.
Automobile lightweight can effectively save fuel consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. Aluminum and its alloys are desirable for the automotive industry due to their excellent high-strength to weight ratio. However, due to the introduction of the welding seam, it has brought new changes to the forming process, especially to the forming limit. To establish a reasonable forming limit curve (FLC) analysis method of friction stir welding (FSW) aluminum alloy blank, a new theoretical model was proposed based on the new second order function constitutive model. The main idea is using the differences in mechanical property between the welding and heat affected zone substitution for the hypothesis of geometry groove in the classic M-K theoretical model. The new second order function constitutive model was applied to M-K theoretical model. Eventually, a new FLC theoretical model for FSW aluminum alloy blank was established. Such theoretical model also overcomes the low strain hardening exponent of aluminum alloy material, which leads to a poor regression accuracy by power-exponent function model. The forming limit test for FSW aluminum alloy blank was performed, and the real-time strain was measured by three-dimensional digital speckle strain measurement system (XJTUDIC). Finally, the results of experiments and the theoretical analysis are compared. Compared with the traditional power law, the regression result of the new second order function constitutive model on the stress-strain curve no matter in the initial yield stage or in late deformation stage has a good fitting precision. The maximum fitting error of the power law on the stress-strain curve is more than 12%, but the fitting error of the new second order function constitutive model is less than 1%. The theoretical prediction based on the new second order function constitutive model is significantly better than the theoretical predictions based on power law in predicting the forming limit of FSW aluminum alloy blank. The prediction error of the first principal strain based on the new second order function constitutive model is less than 0.01. While the maximum prediction error of the first principal strain based on the power law is 0.14.
Plasma arc welding (PAW) is an important joining technology for plates with medium thickness because of the heat source characteristics, however, most models of PAW neglect the vaporization of metal. An axisymmetrical unified PAW model was developed by taking into account the influence of Fe vapor behavior from the molten pool surface as an anode in this work. The simulation region includes tungsten cathode, plasma arc, weld pool, keyhole and their self-consistence coupling using one set conservation equations. A viscosity approximation is used to express the diffusion coefficient in terms of the viscosities of iron vapor. The main physical properties of Ar plasma are set as function of temperature and mass fraction of Fe vapor and are updated every iterate step to reflect the influence of Fe vapor in real time. The process of keyhole formation in stationary plasma arc welding is simulated under welding currents of 150, 170 and 190 A. The transient production, diffusion and concentration in the plasma arc of Fe vapor were presented. The effects of Fe vapor on the plasma arc behavior and formation of weld pool and keyhole are studied. It was shown that the evaporation rate of Fe was greatly dependent on the temperature of the weld pool. Most Fe evaporates from the top part of the keyhole surface and little from the keyhole bottom. The diffusion of Fe vapor is accelerated in the radial direction and is prevented in the axial direction due to the effect of plasma jets flow and at last it tends to be confined to the fringe of the plasma arc closed to the anode. The mixing of Fe vapor in the plasma results in the increase of radiation losses and the decrease of current density of the arc plasma in the fringe, but it had insignificant influence on the arc center. The heat flux from the plasma arc to the anode is also affected by Fe vapor due to its influence on the plasma arc properties. It is found that the calculation result of the width of the molten pool becomes more accurate to consider the effect of Fe vapor.
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new solid-state joining method which offers several advantages compared with conventional welding methods, including better mechanical properties, lower residual stress and reduced occurrence of defects. It has already been used for joining Al alloys in the aerospace and automotive industries. In spite of the advantages, FSW also has drawbacks, such as the risk of root flaws in single-side welds. Using a bobbin tool instead is a promising way to solve this problem since the root region is avoided. Compared with standard (single-side) FSW techniques, the bobbin tool FSW has an extra shoulder attached to the tip of the probe, namely the lower shoulder. This setup makes BTFSW capable of joining closed profiles like hollow extrusions. Furthermore, root flaws, such as lack of penetration, which occasionally occurred in standard FSWtechiques, can be completely avoided. In this work, 6061-T6 aluminum alloy was welded by using bobbin tool friction stir weld (BTFSW). The influence of BTFSW on the microstructure development and hardness distribution in the weldment has been investigated. The corrosion behaviors of the base metal and weld nugget in 3.5%NaCl (mass fraction) solution were investigated using SEM, XRD and electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the weld surface of 6061-T6 welded by BTFSW is of good quality. No welding defect was detected in the joints. Three microstructural zones, i.e., nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone, and heat affected zone were discernible. The microstructural analysis indicates that the weld nugget region exhibited fine and equiaxed grain structure with an average grain size of ~8 μm, indicating the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization due to severe plastic deformation and thermal exposure. The thermo-mechanically affected zone underwent plastic deformation and recrystallization occured in this zone due to deformation strain and thermal input. The low hardness zone, determined by constructing the hardness distribution profile on cross-section of joint, located at thermo-mechanically affected zone of advancing side. Although 6061-T6 alloys are readily weldable, they suffered from severe softening in the heat affected zone because of the dissolution of Mg2Si precipitates during the weld thermal cycle. BTFSW can improve the corrosion resistance of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy in 3.5%NaCl solution. The corrosion behavior results showed that both anodic dissolution and pitting were observed after the immersion test due to the inhomogeneous microstructure of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. The corrosion products mainly composed of Al(OH)3 and Al2O3. Furthermore, the corrosion process and mechanism were also discussed.
Aluminum alloy and steel thin sheets have been mostly used in the automotive industry to get a lightweight car body. Nowadays several studies are focused on the joining of aluminum alloy to steel by new welding methods especially by laser welding. In this work dual-beam fiber laser keyhole welding was introduced to joining of 1.5 mm-thick aluminum alloys to 1.8 mm-thick 304 stainless steels in an overlap joint configure. The influences of different laser focusing positions on the weld appearance, interface microstructures and tensile mechanical resistance of the welded joints were studied. As a result, the good weld appearance of the aluminum alloy to stainless steel joints were obtained by dual-beam fiber laser keyhole welding process without any filler materials. The thickness of the intermetallic compound layer of the joint interface is comparatively thin when the laser beam with low energy is focusing on the front. The nano-hardness testing results show that the average hardness of intermetallic compound layer is 9.61 GPa, which is significantly higher than that of the parent stainless steel of 4.12 GPa and aluminum alloy of 1.09 GPa. The fracture of the welded joints occurs on the aluminum alloy/stainless steel interface layer. The highest mechanical resistance of 131 N/mm can be obtained by the low energy laser beam focused on the front.
This paper simply introduced the research progress in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials, high melting point materials and Al matrix composites, thermal-field simulation, and friction stir processing (FSP), especially based on research results of the authors. Some hotspots like the key factor of FSW dissimilar materials and bonding mechanism on interface, microstructure evolution during FSW of steel and Ti alloys and tool development, microstructure and properties of FSW Al matrix composite joints and tool wear, heat resource model of thermal-field simulation and effect of FSW parameters on thermal-field, microstructure and properties of nano-composites and ultrafine-grained materials prepared by FSP, were summarized and discussed. At the same time, the further research and development direction in FSW are suggested.
After decades of development, mechanical properties of pipeline steels have a good combination of strength and toughness. But after welding, in the heat affected zone (HAZ), microstructure of the base plate was erased by the welding thermal cycle. Several subzones with different microstructures were formed in the HAZ due to different thermal histories they went through. Toughness of the HAZ varies due to the heterogeneous microstructure. In this work, toughness of the HAZ of X100 pipeline steel was examined with two notch locations. Low toughness of 51 J was obtained when the notch encountered intercritically reheated coarsen-grained (ICCG) HAZ and high toughness of 183 J when the notch did not contain ICCGHAZ. Meanwhile, different sub-zones in the HAZ were simulated using Gleeble thermal simulation machine. Simulated coarsen-grained (CG) HAZ, fine-grained (FG) HAZ and intercritically reheated (IC) HAZ with uniform microstructure had good toughness of 244, 164 and 196 J, respectively. In contrast, toughness of simulated ICCGHAZ was only 32 J. Therefore, ICCGHAZ consisting of coarse granular/upper bainite and necklace-type martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent along grain boundaries was proved to be the primary reason for low toughness. Instrumented Charpy impact test results showed that ICCGHAZ could notably embrittle the sample and lower the crack initiation energy. Characterization on the fracture surfaces of the as-fractured Charpy impact specimens showed that ICCGHAZ was found to be the crack initiation site of the whole fracture, and M-A constituent in the ICCGHAZ was characterized as cleavage facet initiation. Fracture mechanisms in the CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ were separately investigated using EBSD. The results showed that necklace-type M-A constituent in the ICCGHAZ notably increased the frequency of cleavage microcracks nucleation. Fracture mechanism changed from nucleation controlled in the CGHAZ to propagation controlled in the ICCGHAZ due to the existence of necklace-type M-A constituent. Therefore, the formation of necklace-type M-A constituent in the ICCGHAZ could not only cause notable drop of toughness in the HAZ, but also change the fracture behavior/mechanism. Hence, research on how to control the distribution status of M-A constituent in the ICCGHAZ is the key to improve the toughness of a weld joint.
Titanium/steel clad material with excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance has important application in storage and transportation equipment of oil and gas. Due to the metallurgical incompatibility of titanium and steel, the mechanical properties of weld joint would completely lose when the brittle intermetallic phase TixFey and TiC appeared in the fusion welding process. Therefore, the gas tungsten arced welding (TIG), metal inert-gas welding (MIG) and metal active-gas welding (MAG) with V/Cu composite filler metals for butt joint in this study was carried out on TA1/X65 pipeline steel clad plates with thickness 16 mm ( titanium cladding with thickness 2 mm, X65 pipeline steel with thickness 14 mm). The microstructure, interface element distribution, main phase, microhardness distribution on cross section and mechanical properties of butt welds were investigated by using OM, XRD, EDS element mapping, microhardness and tensile test. The results indicate that the design of “U-type” circular groove advantageous to the MIG of Cu transition-metals, because of the “U-type” circular groove does not cause stress concentration and crack initiation. The deposited metal of Ti, V, Cu and Fe have obvious zoning, interdiffusion melting phenomenon is not severe, and by using solid solution phases to transit zonings of deposited metal. The microstructure of Ti and V transition interface was composed of Ti-based solid solution, the microstructure of V and Cu transition interface was composed of V-based solid solution, and the microstructure of Cu and Fe transition interface was composed of Cu-based solid solution. The high hardness region of butt weld cross section appeared in the Ti/V transition-interface and V/Cu transition-interface, the hardness value was respectively 326 HV10 and 336 HV10, and weakened the ductility of transition interfacial layer. A joint with a tensile strength of 546 MPa, mainly of that of the carbon steel was obtained.
In recent years, the components tend to be large-scale and large-span. In order to improve the welding construction efficiency and reduce production costs, the high input welding methods, such as automatic gas electric vertical welding, submerged arc welding, electro slag welding, etc., have been widely used in manufacturing fields, like shipbuilding, buildings, bridges, petrochemical and marine structures, etc.. The domestic iron and steel enterprises and research institutes have cooperated successively to develop a number of heat input welding steel with heat input greater than 400 kJ/cm. However, at present, the welding materials which can be matched with these special steels are still dependent on import. In order to change this passive situation, a new type of flux cored wire has been independently developed in this research. The effects of heat input on the microstructure and impact toughness of the weld metal have been investigated through laboratory tests. The results demonstrate that under the condition of large heat input welding, a large number of fine inclusions are formed and distributed randomly in the weld metal. Substantial amount of interlocked acicular ferritic grains are found around the inclusions, contributing to the high impact toughness for the weld metal. With the increase of heat input value, the number of fine inclusions (smaller than 1 μm) decreases and the tendency of inclusion assembly and growth is found to accelerate. Simultaneously, the nucleation points of acicular ferrite decreased and the grain size of acicular ferrite increased slightly in the weld metal. The impact toughness was deteriorated mildly as well.
Ni-based single-crystal superalloy DD5 has excellent high temperature properties, which is the preferred raw material for aero-engine turbine blade in recent year. In this research, DD5 superalloy was brazed by different contents of Ni-Co-Cr-W-B+DD99 mixed powder filler alloy. The microstructure evolution and interfacial formation mechanism of DD5 superalloy brazing joint were analyzed by SEM and EPMA. The mechanical properties of joint after solid solution treatment and aging treatment were tested. The results show that γ-Ni primary phase formed firstly in the Ni-Co-Cr-W-B/DD99 interface during the brazing process, and then B element segregated and precipitated to fine granular M3B2 type boride. The residual liquid phase solidified and formed lastly to the M3B2 phase, γ+γ′ eutectic phase and γ-Ni+Ni3B+CrB eutectic phase during cooling. With increasing the ratio of DD99 in mixed powder filler alloy, the low melting point eutectic phase and borides in the joint decrease and the uniformity of composition and microstructure of joint improve. When the ratio of DD99 increased to 70% (mass fraction) in the mixed powder filler alloy, it can be observed that element of B diffused to DD99 additive powder which result ed in the decrease of low melting point eutectic phases and brittle compounds. The high temperature tensile properties of joint is 1010 MPa at 870 ℃.
Most titanium alloys have been designed for aeronautical applications, where their excellent specific properties are fully employed and weldability is a classic problem with Ti and its alloys. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the electron beam weldments of TC17 alloy were investigated in this work. The results showed that there exhibited three zones across the TC17 electron beam weldment: the fusion zone (FZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM). It was also observed that the as-welded FZ consisted of metastable β columnar grains, while the HAZ consisted of acicular α/α′ phase, equiaxed α phase and metastable β phase. Furthermore, it was indicated that the transformation from metastable β phase to α+β phase happened when the FZ and HAZ were post-weld heat treated at 630~800 ℃, the coarsening of α laths and the grain boundary α were also observed when the heat treatment temperature increased. The increasing of 450 ℃ ultimate tensile strength of FZ was ascribed to the precipitation of secondary acicular α platelets during tensile testing in the as-welded and 800 ℃ heat treated conditions, which led to the low yield ratio of FZ. The tensile failure location of the weldments was found to occur in preference in the low tensile yield strength area, or in the low hardness area when the difference between yield strength across the weldments is very small. It was concluded that the optimal post-weld heat treatment for the TC17 alloy weldment was 630 ℃, 2 h, A.C., at which the weldments showed good combination of tensile strength and elongation.
Effects of welding heat input on the microstructure and dynamic fracture toughness (JId) of the CO2 shielded arc welded joints of Q460 high strength low alloy steel were investigated. The mechanism of effects on the dynamic facture behavior of the welded joint was also discussed. The results showed that there existed the allotriomorphic ferrite at the columnar interface in the fusion zone of welded joint under the condition of low heat input. The morphological characteristics of columnar crystal in the fusion zone gradually decreased and the allotriomorphic ferrite disappeared as the heat input increased. The fusion zone was mainly composed of acicular ferrite, and its average size increased with increasing heat input. The welded joint exhibited the optimal dynamic fracture toughness under the condition of medium heat input while it showed the lowest value under low heat input within the temperature range of -70 ℃ to room temperature. When the temperature decreased from room temperature to -70 ℃, the dynamic fracture mechanism of Q460 welded joint changed from ductile fracture to brittle cleavage fracture. Under the condition of low heat input, the allotriomorphic ferrite characterized by the planar growth at the columnar interface in the fusion zone of welded joint can lead to the rapid intergranular crack propagation at low temperature. The fine acicular ferrite in the fusion zone of the welding joint obtained at medium heat input which can hinder the crack propagation during the dynamic fracture at low temperature to the greatest extent is the reason why the welded joint exhibits high dynamic fracture toughness.
Graphite and metal composite structures were widely used in aerospace, electrical engineering and electronics. Because of its conveniences and less cost, brazing was widely used to bond graphite and metals. Due to the differences in microstructure, graphite was difficult to be wetted by traditional braze alloys. To improve the wettability of traditional brazing alloys on graphite, active brazing process and indirect brazing process were developed to braze graphite to metals. As to active brazing process, active elements (such as Ti, Cr, Zr) were added into traditional brazing alloys, a high brazing temperature, was essential to guarantee the reaction of active elements with graphite. However, the mechanical properties of metals will degrade under high temperature. Electroplating and chemical plating were the general techniques for indirect brazing process. The covered coating had a mechanical combination which decreased the joint strength, rather than metallurgical bonding with graphite. Therefore, in this work, a new metallization method was proposed. On the one hand, a metallurgical bonding was formed between metallization layer and graphite substrate. On the other hand, graphite could be brazed to metal at a relatively low temperature. Firstly, graphite was metalized by Ti-containing Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu metallization powder at 950 ℃ for 30 min. Then metalized graphite was brazed with copper by Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu successfully. The typical interfacial structure of brazed joint was copper/Cu3Sn/Cu6Sn5/β-Sn/TiC/graphite. Element Ti of metallization powder played an important role in metallization process for a reaction layer TiC was formed on the interface of graphite and metallization layer. Nevertheless, Ti contents had no effect on interfacial structure and shear strength of brazed joint. With the increase of brazing temperature, more and more element Cu dissolved into molten solder and formed Cu-Sn compounds by reacting with Sn. Furthermore, shear strength was improved slightly. Fracture analysis reveals that cracks extended along β-Sn layer and presented ductile fracture. When Cu-Sn compounds occupied the entire brazing seam (joint brazed at 600 ℃), shear strength improved remarkably and reached 30 MPa. Additionally, the joint was fractured in graphite entirely.
Longitudinal submerged arc welding pipeline steels with heavy caliber and large wall thickness are widely applied in the oil gas transmission to enhance the transmission efficiency and save cost. K65 pipeline steels are the main material for the Bovanenkove-Ukhta oil & gas transmission project. It is required that the -40 ℃ low temperature toughness of weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) are over 60 J for K65 pipelines. This standard is much stricter than that of X80 pipelines. The pipeline with superior low temperature toughness is seldom investigated. In this work, the Mn-Ni-Mo-Ti-B alloy submerged arc welding wire with high strength and high tough ness was designed, which was favorable to obtain excellent low temperature toughness. The results showed that the weld metal had a good combination of strength and low temperature toughness, the yield strength was 583~689 MPa, the tensile strength was 714~768 MPa, and the impact absorbed energy at -40 ℃ was over 90 J. The wire with a diameter of 4.0 mm was suitable for double-sided submerged arc welding with four wires, and the -40 ℃ impact energy of HAZ was over 100 J. The microstructure of weld metal was primarily comprised of fine acicular ferrite (AF), proeutectoid grain boundary ferrite (GBF), ferrite side plates (FSP) and small martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents. The weld metal with 0.2%Mo can effectively restrain the formation of GBF and FSP, significantly refining the grain size. The increased Mn and Ni contents enhanced the low temperature toughness of weld metal by increasing the amount of acicular ferrite. However, the concentration of Mn and Ni should be controlled under a critical value; much more Mn and Ni additions would promote the formation of martensite or other low temperature microstructural features, which is detrimental to weld metal toughness. The optimum combination of alloying element content was (1.5%~2.0%)Mn, (0.9%~1.2%)Ni, (0.2%~0.25%)Mo. Excellent strength and toughness can be obtained through replacing Ni by Mn in the terms of the concentration of Mn and Ni being above the Ms line.
Microstructure and welding residual stresses in ferritic heat-resistant steels such as P92 have been considered as one of the most important factors in the structural integrity and life assessment of power plant weldments. Applying computational tools to predict microstructure and residual stress distribution in practical welded structures is a preferable way to create safer, more reliable and lower cost structures. In this work, the effects of volume change, yield strength variation and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) on the generation of residual stresses in P92 steel welded joints were investigated experimentally and numerically. Optical microscope and Vickers hardness tester were used to characterize the microstructure and hardness of the weldments. The hole-drilling strain-gage method was employed to determine the residual stress distribution across the weldments. Based on SYSWELD software, a thermal-metallurgical-mechanical finite element method (FEM) was developed to simulate welding temperature field and residual stress distribution in P92 steel joints. Firstly, numerical simulations of Satoh test were carried out to clarify the influence of solid-state phase transformation on the formation of residual stresses. The simulation results show that the volume change and the yield stress variation have a great effect on the magnitude and distribution profiles of residual stresses in the fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ), and even alter the sign of the stresses, while TRIP have a relaxation effect on the tendency of stress variation during phase transformation. Secondly, a FEM was established to calculate the welding residual stress distribution in a single-pass bead-on P92 steel joint. In the FEM, three main constituent phases (austenite, untempered martensite and tempered martensite) in P92 steel were taken into account. Finally, the simulation results of welding residual stress were compared with the experiments obtained by hole-drilling method. The numerical simulation results are generally in a good agreement with the measured data.
Solder has been long playing an important role in the assembly and interconnection of integrated circuit (IC) components on substrates, i.e., ceramic or organic printed circuit boards. The main function of solder is to provide electrical, thermal, and mechanical connections in electronic assemblies. Lead, a major component in Sn/Pb solder, has long been recognized as a health threat to human beings, which is the main reason for the requirement of environmental-friendly lead-free solder. A variety of lead-free solder alloys have been investigated as potential replacements for Sn/Pb solders, but there is still no perfect alternative. Three alloy families, Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag and Sn-Cu, seem to be of particular interest. However, concerns with this alloy family, including higher soldering temperature, poorer wettability due to their higher surface tension, and their compatibility with existing soldering technology and materials, have impeded their steps in completely replacing Sn/Pb solder. As the melting point can be dramatically decreased when the size of the particles is reduced to nanometer size, especially under 20 nm, and nanosolders have much better wettability at the same time. Furthermore, after heated and cooled, nanomaterials become bulk materials, which make them have the ability to endure a higher function temperature. Thus it is of great significance to conduct in-depth investigation on the synthesis of nanosolders and their soldering performance. In this work, Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu nanoparticles as a promising alternative of Sn/Pb solder was developed. The morphology, atomic structure, phase composition, and element composition of nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, and EDS, respectively. Size change of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu nanoparticles under different sintering temperatures and sintering times was discussed. Microstructure of Cu/nanosolder/Cu sandwich structure under different soldering peak temperatures and soldering times was investigated. Shear strength and failure mode of the Cu/nanosolder/Cu sandwich structure under different pressure were also discussed. The results showed that the average diameter of nanoparticles was less than 10 nm with an agglomeration growth tendency. When sintering temperature was relatively low, the neck size increased steadily as temperature and time increased. In contrast, when sintering temperature was relatively high, the agglomeration mainly happened in the initial process and neck size changed little as the time increased. Thickness of intermetallics of Cu/nanosolder/Cu sandwich structure increased with the soldering temperature increased while the size and quantity of voids decreased. Shear strength of bonded sample increased with the increasing pressure, and got the maximum 14.2 MPa when the pressure reached 10 N.
Underwater hyperbaric dry welding method is one of the key technology for emergency repair of underwater pipeline leakage. Since the ambient pressure grows with water depth for application of the underwater dry hyperbaric welding method, the normal GMAW welding process tends to be unstable with the increase of the ambient pressure, which leads to the decline in the quality of welding. The cold metal transfer (CMT) welding method adopts a push-pull wire feeding mode and it has adaptive ability to control droplet transfer. In order to improve the welding quality under the hyperbaric environment, the experiments using the CMT welding method were conducted in atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) and 0.5 MPa environmental pressures respectively with a test system simulating the underwater hyperbaric environment. API X65 pipes were used as the base metal for welding experiments. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the behavior of the welding arc. The welding processes at both ambient pressures were found to be stable. However, compared with the atmospheric environment, the CMT welding arc contracted at the ambient pressure of 0.5 MPa, and the droplet transfer frequency was reduced a little. Mechanical performance tests and microstructure analysis of the welds were carried out after welding. While welding in the hyperbaric environment, the upper bainite structure emerged in the microstructure of the seam and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) because of the enhanced environmental cooling effect. The tensile properties of the welds were not changed significantly. Although the low temperature impact toughness decreased, the test data were higher than the relevant limitations of standard. The experimental results show that the stability of the welding process is improved by applying the CMT welding method in the hyperbaric environment. It was verified that the CMT welding method can meet the requirements of underwater hyperbaric welding.
Al alloy 2219 (AA2219) is widely used in the aerospace industry, and friction stir welding (FSW) is an ideal method to join it. The ultimate tensile strength of an FSW AA2219-T8 joint can be as high as 344 MPa which is significantly higher than that welded by other methods such as gas tungsten arc welding. However, the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) in the FSW joints of AA2219-T6/T8 is a weakness zone of mechanical property and is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), but the reasons are not been well understood. In this work, the mechanical and electrochemical properties of different zones in AA2219-T8 joints obtained by the FSW method were studied. The welding thermal cycles during welding were measured using an array of type K thermocouples. During the tensile process of the joints, digital image correlation (DIC) technique and high speed video technique were employed to investigate the deformational behavior and fracture pathway of the TMAZ, respectively. A microcell method was used to study the micro-electrochemical characteristics of the joints with and without stress. The results showed that the minimum strength located at a position where the weighted strengthening effects of both thermal cycles and stir action were the weakest. The DIC results revealed that the deformation concentrated mainly in the TMAZ during the tensile tests. However, due to the different restraints from the nugget zone (NZ) led to a large strain in the root side than that in the crown side. This made the root side susceptible to cracks initiation. In situ tensile testing indicated that cracks occurred only in the TMAZ at 190 MPa, indicating that the protective surface films in the TMAZ were more prone to crack than those in other zones of the joint. This led the TMAZ to be the weakest zone to pitting corrosion in an aggressive environment. Once pits generate in the TMAZ, the local stress will concentrate near the tip of the pitting, resulting in failure.