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Acta Metall Sin  2016, Vol. 52 Issue (11): 1388-1394    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2016.00077
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Feng PAN,Li CUI(),Wei QIAN,Dingyong HE,Shizhong WEI
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
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Aluminum alloy and steel thin sheets have been mostly used in the automotive industry to get a lightweight car body. Nowadays several studies are focused on the joining of aluminum alloy to steel by new welding methods especially by laser welding. In this work dual-beam fiber laser keyhole welding was introduced to joining of 1.5 mm-thick aluminum alloys to 1.8 mm-thick 304 stainless steels in an overlap joint configure. The influences of different laser focusing positions on the weld appearance, interface microstructures and tensile mechanical resistance of the welded joints were studied. As a result, the good weld appearance of the aluminum alloy to stainless steel joints were obtained by dual-beam fiber laser keyhole welding process without any filler materials. The thickness of the intermetallic compound layer of the joint interface is comparatively thin when the laser beam with low energy is focusing on the front. The nano-hardness testing results show that the average hardness of intermetallic compound layer is 9.61 GPa, which is significantly higher than that of the parent stainless steel of 4.12 GPa and aluminum alloy of 1.09 GPa. The fracture of the welded joints occurs on the aluminum alloy/stainless steel interface layer. The highest mechanical resistance of 131 N/mm can be obtained by the low energy laser beam focused on the front.

Key words:  aluminum      alloy/stainless      steel      dissimilar      alloy,      dual-laser      beam,      laser      deep      penetration      welding,      intermetallic      compound      (IMC)     
Received:  09 March 2016     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51475006) and Key Program of Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Beijing and Beijing Natural Science Foundation of B Category (No.KZ201610005004)

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Fig.1  Schematic of dual-beam laser keyhole welding of Al alloy to stainless steel
Fig.2  Top bead appearances of dual-laser beam welds (a) low power laser in front (b) low power laser in behind
Fig.3  OM images (a, b) and high magnified images near rectangular areas (c, d) of dual-beam laser welded joints of Al alloys to stainless steels with low power laser in front (a, c) and in behind (b, d) (HAZ—heat affected zone, IMC—intermetallic compound)
Fig.4  SEM images in the interface of Al alloys/stainless steels with low power laser in front (a) and in behind (b)
Fig.5  SEM image (a) and EDS line scanning analysis (b) of IMC at interface of the Al alloy/stainless steel
Fig.6  Nanoindentation load-displacement curve
Fig.7  OM images of fractured joint in the cross section direction

(a) whole joint (b) Al alloy side (c) stainless steel side

Fig.8  SEM images of fractured joint zone I (a) and zone II (b) in Fig.7
Fig.9  XRD spectrum taken from the fracture surfaces of the joints
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