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Acta Metall Sin  2015, Vol. 51 Issue (11): 1349-1355    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2015.00117
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EVALUATION OF INTERGRANULAR CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF 11Cr FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL BY DL-EPR METHOD
Shaoming QIANG1,Laizhu JIANG2,Jin LI1,Tianwei LIU3,Yanping WU3,Yiming JIANG1()
1 Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
2 Research and Development Center, Baosteel Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201900
3 National Key Laboratory for Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621907
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Abstract  

Ferritic stainless steel (FSS) containg (11%~13%)Cr with low C and N has excellent comprehensive performances and thus can be widely applied in extensive fields such as automobile exhaust systems, containers, buses and so on. Among them, 409L steel containing 11%Cr has been increasingly used in applications for tail pipes in the cold end parts of automobile exhaust systems because of its good corrosion resistance and moderate price. During the manufacture process for these tail pipes, improper heat treatments and welding operations cause the precipitation of some detrimental phases such as carbides, nitrides, which leads to a reduction on the resistance to intergranular corrosion (IGC) due to the presence of Cr-depleted zone in the grain boundaries. In this work, the precipitates in grain boundaries of 409L steel aged at 600 ℃ were investigated using TEM, EDS and SAED. The double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method was extended for evaluating the IGC susceptibility of 409L steel. The operating conditions of the DL-EPR test for 409L steel were optimized by investigating the influences of the main test parameters, such as scanning rate, solution composition, solution temperature. The experimental results showed that the IGC occurred in aged 409L steel due to the precipitation of M23C6 along grain boundaries. The optimized DL-EPR test could evaluate the IGC susceptibility of 409L steel quantitatively with high reproducibility. With the increase of aging time, much more M23C6 precipitated along grain boundaries, which resulted in 409L steel more susceptible to IGC.

Key words:  11Cr ferritic stainless steel      double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation      intergranular corrosion      M23C6     
Fund: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.51131008 and 51134010), National Key Technology Support Program (No.2012BAE04B00) and Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (No.20120071110013)

Cite this article: 

Shaoming QIANG,Laizhu JIANG,Jin LI,Tianwei LIU,Yanping WU,Yiming JIANG. EVALUATION OF INTERGRANULAR CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF 11Cr FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL BY DL-EPR METHOD. Acta Metall Sin, 2015, 51(11): 1349-1355.

URL: 

https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/10.11900/0412.1961.2015.00117     OR     https://www.ams.org.cn/EN/Y2015/V51/I11/1349

Fig.1  Volume fraction of phases in 409L steel calculated by Thermo-Calc
Fig.2  TEM image of grain boundary in as-received 409L steel (a), bright-field (b) and dark-field (c) images of grain boundaries in 409L steel after aged at 600 ℃ for 4 h, EDS analysis (d) and SAED pattern (e) of carbides
Fig.3  Effects of KSCN concentration (c) on DL-EPR test for 409L steel in 0.5%H2SO4 solution with scanning rate 1.667 mV/s at 30 ℃ (Ra—intergranular corrosion sensitivity)
Fig.4  Effects of scanning rate on DL-EPR test for 409L steel in 0.5%H2SO4+0.002%KSCN solution at 30 ℃
Fig.5  Effects of solution temperatures on DL-EPR test for 409L steel in 0.5%H2SO4+0.002%KSCN solution with scanning rate 1.667 mV/s
Fig.6  DL-EPR curves at the optimal conditions for 409L steel aged at 600 ℃for different times (ESCE—potential)
Sample Ia / (mAcm-2) Ir / (mAcm-2) Ra / %
As-received 28.40 0 0
Aged for 0.5 h 32.61 2.61 8.00
Aged for 4 h 32.40 6.29 19.41
Aged for 10 h 27.18 8.63 31.75
Table 1  DL-EPR results for 409L steel aged at 600 ℃ for different times at the optimal conditions
Fig.7  OM images of 409L steel after DL-EPR test at the optimal conditions

(a) as-received (b) aged at 600 ℃ for 0.5 h (c) aged at 600 ℃ for 4 h (d) aged at 600 ℃ for 10 h

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