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金属学报  2018, Vol. 54 Issue (2): 265-277    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00294
  本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
搅拌摩擦焊接产热传热过程与材料流动的数值模拟
武传松(), 宿浩, 石磊
山东大学材料液固结构演变与加工教育部重点实验室 济南 250061
Numerical Simulation of Heat Generation, Heat Transfer and Material Flow in Friction Stir Welding
Chuansong WU(), Hao SU, Lei SHI
Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Materials Processing (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
全文: PDF(8067 KB)   HTML
摘要: 

搅拌摩擦焊接过程中的产热、传热与塑性材料流动行为直接决定了焊接接头的组织演变及力学性能。对这些物理现象开展数值模拟研究,对于深入理解搅拌摩擦焊接过程的物理机制和优化焊接工艺具有重要意义。本文综述了搅拌摩擦焊接过程产热、传热与材料流动数值模拟的国内外研究现状,指出了存在的主要问题。介绍了作者课题组近年来针对这些问题所开展的研究工作。根据搅拌头-工件界面上的受力特点,研发出了黏着系数和摩擦因数的测试-计算法,为提高数值模拟的精度奠定了基础。建立了针对复杂截面形状搅拌针的搅拌摩擦焊接过程数学模型,数值分析了3种典型搅拌头情况下焊接过程中的产热率、温度分布和塑性流动行为。建立了包含下压、停留、焊接及冷却4个阶段的搅拌摩擦焊接全过程的传热-流动耦合模型,模拟了焊接过程各阶段的产热、温度场和塑性材料流动的演变情况。在此基础上,对搅拌摩擦焊接过程数值模拟领域未来的发展趋势进行了展望,提出了下一步的研究重点。

关键词 搅拌摩擦焊接产热传热材料流动数值模拟    
Abstract

The heat generation, heat transfer and plasticized material flow in friction stir welding determine directly the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of weld joints. Numerical simulation of these thermo-physical phenomena is of great significance for getting a deep insight into the underlying mechanisms and optimizing the process parameters of friction stir welding. This article reviews the progress status in numerical simulation of heat generation, heat transfer and plasticized material flow behaviors in friction stir welding, and outlines the unsolved problems. The research work targeting these issues, which has been conducted by the authors' group, is introduced. According to the stress characteristics at the tool-workpiece interface, the expressions of sticking rate and friction coefficient are developed, and this measurement-calculation method lays foundation for improving the accuracy of numerical analysis. Through synthetically considering the characteristics of complex-shaped tools, a three dimensional model of friction stir welding process is established. Three types of tools are taken into consideration, i.e., normal CT (conical-pin tool), ST (conical-pin with 4 flats tool) and TT (conical-pin with 3 flats tool). For the cases in application of these tools, the heat generation, temperature profile, and material flow velocity are analyzed quantitatively. A mathematical model for the whole friction stir welding process including plunge stage, dwell stage, welding stage, and cooling stage is established for numerical analysis of transient development in heat generation rate, temperature and material flow fields in each stages. Based on the status review, the trend in numerical simulation of frictions stir welding is outlooked, and the research focus for next step is proposed.

Key wordsfriction stir welding    heat generation    heat transfer    material flow    numerical simulation
收稿日期: 2017-07-17     
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目No.51475272
作者简介:

作者简介 武传松,男,1959年生,教授

引用本文:

武传松, 宿浩, 石磊. 搅拌摩擦焊接产热传热过程与材料流动的数值模拟[J]. 金属学报, 2018, 54(2): 265-277.
Chuansong WU, Hao SU, Lei SHI. Numerical Simulation of Heat Generation, Heat Transfer and Material Flow in Friction Stir Welding. Acta Metall Sin, 2018, 54(2): 265-277.

链接本文:

https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00294      或      https://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2018/V54/I2/265

图1  搅拌摩擦焊接(FSW)过程产热的影响因素
图2  FSW过程的产热分布[12]
Case No. ω / (rmin-1) U / (mmmin-1) Mc / (Nm) δ μf
1 400 80 29.26 0.497 0.370
2 400 160 33.84 0.575 0.506
3 600 80 21.89 0.372 0.221
4 800 40 12.45 0.254 0.106
5 800 80 13.56 0.276 0.119
6 800 120 13.36 0.272 0.117
7 800 160 14.32 0.292 0.129
8 800 200 15.36 0.313 0.142
9 800 240 16.85 0.343 0.163
10 1000 80 10.11 0.206 0.081
表1  不同工艺条件下黏着系数和摩擦因数的计算值
图3  FSW全过程示意图
图4  FSW焊接过程中的产热量随时间变化曲线[38]
图5  下压阶段不同时刻工件横截面温度场[38]
图6  预热停留和焊接阶段不同时刻焊缝横断面温度场[38]
图7  距工件上表面2 mm深度处搅拌头周围的流场流线(焊接阶段)[38]
图8  几种不同的搅拌针截面形状
图9  在同一个旋转周期不同时刻的Triflute搅拌针横截面形状
图10  搅拌头旋转过程中z=3 mm截面上2点的温度变化(TT, Case No.5)[45]
图11  剪切层内塑性变形产生的体积热流分布(Case No.9)[44]
图12  工件截面上的流场(左)和流线(右)分布(Case No.7, z=3 mm)
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