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金属学报  2019, Vol. 55 Issue (1): 109-125    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00307
  本期目录 | 过刊浏览 |
金属基复合材料高通量制备及表征技术研究进展
张学习1, 郑忠1, 高莹2, 耿林1()
1 哈尔滨工业大学材料科学与工程学院 哈尔滨 150001
2 北京空间飞行器总体设计部 北京 100086
Progress in High Throughput Fabrication and Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites
Xuexi ZHANG1, Zhong ZHENG1, Ying GAO2, Lin GENG1()
1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2 Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100086, China
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摘要: 

“材料基因工程”计划是以大数据作为支撑,采用高通量设计、制备和表征技术,促使材料研究从传统的试错模式转向低成本、快速响应的新模式,从而加快新材料的研发速度,实现研发成本和周期“双减半”的目标。金属基复合材料由于组分复杂、制备过程为热力学非平衡状态,带来一些新的问题需要解决,包括:(1) 高通量制备方法方面,针对合金块体样品开发的喷印合成法、多元结扩散法等基于热力学平衡理论的高通量制备技术无法直接用于金属基复合材料构件块体坯料的制造;(2) 高通量表征技术方面,缺乏针对金属基复合材料单一样品成分、形貌、组织、结构和性能的多维、多场、多尺度同步采集技术,以及针对阵列样品成分、形貌、组织与结构的快速表征技术。鉴于上述问题,本文综述了金属基复合材料高通量制备及表征技术发展现状及已取得的进展,特别是在增强体呈梯度分布的金属基复合材料制备技术与高通量组合表征方法上取得的突破,推动了高通量制备及表征技术在金属基复合材料领域的应用。最后指出了金属基复合材料高通量计算、制备方法和表征技术方面存在的瓶颈问题,并对高通量制备与表征技术的发展进行了展望。

关键词 金属基复合材料高通量制备高通量表征梯度复合材料研究现状    
Abstract

The "material genetic engineering" plan, based on the large data, is to investigate the high throughput design, fabrication and characterization techniques with the aim to shift the material research from traditional mode to high throughput mode with low cost and fast response speed, and to accelerate the research and development of new materials and achieve the goal of "double reduction halves". As the metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit multi-components and a thermodynamically non-equilibrium state during fabrication, some key issues occur and need to be addressed including: (1) for high throughput fabrication, currently developed high throughput technologies based on thermodynamically equilibrium conditions, such as spray printing and multi-node diffusion methods, are not applicable for MMCs; (2) for high throughput characterization, there is a lack of multi- dimensional, field and scale acquisition technique for the composition, morphology, microstructure and property of MMCs. In order to solve these problems, the progress on the research and development of high throughput fabrication and characterization techniques of MMCs was reviewed, especially, in the field of gradient reinforced MMCs and their high throughput combination characterization methods, which may promote the application of high throughput fabrication and characterization techniques in MMCs. Finally, the bottlenecks and prospects in the high throughput fabrication and characterization of MM Cs are proposed.

Key wordsmetal matrix composites (MMCs)    high throughput fabrication    high throughput characterization    gradient metal matrix composites (GMMCs)    research status
收稿日期: 2018-07-03      出版日期: 2018-11-13
ZTFLH:  TG457  
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目No.2017YFB0703103
作者简介:

作者简介 张学习,男,1975年生,教授,博士

引用本文:

张学习, 郑忠, 高莹, 耿林. 金属基复合材料高通量制备及表征技术研究进展[J]. 金属学报, 2019, 55(1): 109-125.
Xuexi ZHANG, Zhong ZHENG, Ying GAO, Lin GENG. Progress in High Throughput Fabrication and Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites. Acta Metall, 2019, 55(1): 109-125.

链接本文:

http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2018.00307      或      http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2019/V55/I1/109

图1  材料的传统研发模式与高通量研发模式对比
Technique Application area Advantage Ref.
Co-deposition method High throughput preparation of multi-component alloys Precise control of composition and gradient distribution [4,33]
Discrete template coating Doping of epitaxial films with transition metals and synthesis of sulfuric semiconductor materials Uniform, controllable and wide span composition and unlimited number of components [4,5]
Continuous template coating Preparation of dielectric materials and study of multi-alloy phase diagrams Controllable component distribution and continuous linear distribution states [35,36]
Spray printing Preparing combined ceramic specimens Repeated delivery of multiple components in a fast and precise way [9~11]
Microfluidic structure method Preparation and characterization of trace amount of catalysts Fast response to stress, helpful in conducting efficient characterization [37~39]
Multiple diffusion nodes Drawing three element phase diagrams and quickly screening materials Gaining alloys with gradient composition changes [6~8]
Microelectromechani-cal structure Studying mechanical properties and transformation enthalpies of alloys Quickly examine many samples, high compatibility with high-throughput experiments [16,17,21]
Chemical bath deposition Preparation of array film materials High efficiency for films, suitable for multi-component systems [40]
Magnetron sputtering Preparing film samples with various elements and contents High efficiency in preparing multi-component films [14]
Multi-flow pulse laser deposition High-throughput synthesis of monolayer and multilayer thin films Composite films have uniform composition and high performance [41]
Direct atomization of oligomers High throughput preparation of nano-scale hybrid membranes Low defect density in nano hybrid membranes and high fabrication efficiency [42]
Cooling rate controlling Studying correlation between cooling rate and properties of polycrystalline nickel based alloys High efficiently characterizing the correlation between microstructures and properties [43]
High throughput sintering diffusion Synthesis of magnetic materials Study of the new phases and equilibrium phases in alloys [44]
Linear friction welding Fabrication of alloys with gradient element distribution state Establishing the relationship among element content, microstructure and properties [45]
Focused ion beam machining Any area of interest can be collected in many kinds of materials Preparing micron- or nano-samples for direct analysis of microstructure and properties [46]
Laser additive manufacturing Preparing alloys, composites and micron- or nano-structured materials High precision in dimensions and wide range of application [47~50]
表1  金属材料高通量制备方法、原理、应用及优点分析[4~11,14,16,17,21,33,35~50]
Method Application area Ref.
Selective laser cladding Creation of gradient component distribution in Si/Al composites by tailoring vaporization of Al under laser and unidirectional solidification under external magnetic fields [12,13]
Centrifugal casting Ni powders of various sizes were distributed in Al2O3 under centrifugal process of the mixed slurry [51]
Uniaxial hot pressing Creation of gradient distribution of density, hardness, porosity and pore size in Al2O3/C composites by inhomogeneous temperature distribution during hot pressing [52]
Laminating Preparing laminated Al composite materials with 2%, 4% and 6% (volume fraction) SiC particles via hot pressing [53]
Positioning impregnation Preparing Ti3SiC2/SiC composites with graded components by hot pressing and impregnation at high temperature [54]
表2  金属基复合材料高通量制备方法和应用领域[12,13,51~54]
图2  变形前后SiCp/Al复合材料界面微柱SEM像[57]
图3  静电自组装制备石墨烯呈梯度分布的石墨烯-Al粉混合粉
图4  多道次冷拉拔制备石墨烯/Al复合材料丝材过程和组织[59]
图5  层状金属基复合材料通过热挤压和拉拔获得复合材料纤维的示意图
图6  TiCp/Ti6Al4V复合材料网状结构SEM像[60]
图7  基于粉末冶金的网状钛基复合材料高通量制备技术
图8  基于无压浸渗的铝基复合材料高通量制备技术
图9  采用聚焦离子束加工金属基复合材料微小样品阵列
Technique Applicable area Reference
X-ray diffraction (XRD) Phase information [65]
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Surface roughness and three-dimensional image [66]
Scanning probe Characterizing electro-catalysts and electrodes with gradient component distribution [67~69]
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Quantitative analysis of surface compositions and functional groups [70,71]
Secondary ion mass spectroscopy
Qualitative analysis of the surface compositions (acting as supplement of X-ray photoelectron spectrum using molecular ion segment spectrum) [70,71]
In situ XRD The evolution of the crystal structure in the stress field, temperature field and combination of these fields [72,73]
X-ray absorption near edge spectrum High resolution characterization of the large volume 2D and 3D morphologies (tens of nanometers) and chemical compositions [74,75]
Neutron diffraction technique Three dimensional spatial distribution of texture evolution, microstructure and residual stress in bulk materials [76~78]
Decalescent microwave probe microscopy Characterization of electrical (superconductivity, conductivity, dielectric constant etc.) and magnetic (magnetic susceptibility and spin resonance etc.) properties [79,80]
Nano scanning calorimetry Characterization of the thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, heat capacity and phase transition temperature [21~23]
X-ray fluorescence technique Chemical composition, elemental analysis and identification [65]
Near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy Characterization of the element valence state [65]
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy The absorbance characteristics and molecular conjugation analysis [31]
Infrared emission imaging Screening organic and inorganic materials and hydrogen storage metal materials [81]
Mass spectrometry Mass ratio analysis and compound/molecular identification [82]
Gas chromatography Separation and identification of the complex [83]
Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization Study of the spectrum and molecular rotation information of atoms and small molecules [31]
In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy Characterization of the chemical evolution [74,84]
In situ X-ray binding mass spectrometry Characterization of the thermal stability [74]
Cantilever beam array technology Thermomechanical behavior analysis of thin films with wide component gradient [85]
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum Analyzing small stray magnetic field and relaxation phenomena of small magnets [86,87]
Photoacoustic technology Identification and characterization of parallel catalytic products [88]
表3  金属基复合材料显微组织表征技术及其应用领域[21~23,31,65~88]
Technique Application area Reference
Ion beam analysis Automatic detection for abundant samples; promising for high throughput detection [89]
High throughput transmission technology Characterization of composition phases, development of new materials and construction of phase diagrams [25]
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Simultaneous in-situ imaging and electrical measurement, and observation of grain growth process induced by electric current [90]
Differential aperture XRD technique Low X-ray energy, sub-micron size of the spot, fairly high spatial resolution, and useful for analyzing deformation microstructures [91]
Three dimensional XRD technique High spatial and angular resolutions, suitable for studying recrystallization growth process [24]
Automatic scanning nano-indentation technology Mechanical properties of small volume materials, including strength and modulus [18,85,92~94]
Optical microscopy combined with differential interference imaging Three-dimensional surface topography and height information at re-melting lines [26~28]
Laser induced fluorescence imaging technology High throughput in-situ screening with micron scale spatial resolution and millisecond time resolution [95]
Scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy Characterization of the element composition and crystal structure [96]
High throughput screening sensor A new high throughput characterization method for a variety of elements [97]
In-situ tensile combined with digital image correlation (DIC) Calculation of the local strain distribution using different strain images, with high spatial resolution and the stretching rate [29]
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with DIC Precise calculation of image gradients, strain and deformation fields [30]
Femtosecond pulse laser technology Imaging of the time domain thermal reflection for phase formation, with spatial resolution of 1 μm and test rate of 10000 pointsh-1 [15]
Micromechanical testing technology High throughput mechanical properties tests, potential for automatic micro area tests [16~20]
In-situ statistical distribution analysis technique High throughput screening and validation of material design, modification and optimization [98~101]
Multi-dimensional and multi-scale high throughput characterization Three-dimensional crystallographic orientation and reconstruction; material structures; three dimensional X-ray diffraction etc. [102]
Microwave microscopy combined with AFM High spatial resolution characterization of the dielectric/ferroelectric materials [103]
Micro area electrochemical measurement technology High positioning accuracy (resolution 50 nm) and automatic programming tests for high density composite material samples [33]
表4  金属基复合材料性能高通量表征技术和应用领域[15~20,24~30,33,85,89~103]
图10  层状复合材料组织、变形以及力学性能同步表征技术示意图[29]
图11  改进的X射线衍射仪及其应用[104]
图12  基于同步辐射的电极复合材料原位表征技术[105]
图13  时域探测激光束偏转(TD-PBD)方法的原理及其精度分析[106]
图14  基于SEM的金属基复合材料高通量表征平台
图15  基于X射线同步辐射的金属基复合材料高通量表征平台
图16  阵列样品快速表征技术示意图
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