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金属学报  2017, Vol. 53 Issue (9): 1091-1100    DOI: 10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00084
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溶质Ti对Al-Ti-B中间合金细化Al影响的新认识:TiB2粒子的动力学行为及溶质Ti的影响
张丽丽1, 江鸿翔1, 赵九洲1(), 李璐2, 孙倩1
1 中国科学院金属研究所 沈阳 110016
2 国家知识产权局专利局专利审查协作天津中心 天津 300304
A New Understanding Toward Effect of Solute Ti on Grain Refinement of Aluminum by Al-Ti-B Master Alloy: Kinetic Behaviors of TiB2 Particles and Effect of Solute Ti
Lili ZHANG1, Hongxiang JIANG1, Jiuzhou ZHAO1(), Lu LI2, Qian SUN1
1 Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2 Patent Examination Cooperation Tianjin Center of the Patent Office. SIPO., Tianjin 300304, China
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摘要: 

实验研究了Ti添加量对Al-Ti-B中间合金细化工业纯Al晶粒效果的影响,建立了Al熔体中TiB2粒子动力学行为模型,模拟分析了Al-Ti-B中间合金细化工业纯Al过程中TiB2粒子的溶解、粗化和快速长大行为及溶质Ti的影响。实验和模拟结果表明,Al-Ti-B中间合金细化工业纯Al过程中,TiB2粒子的动力学行为对中间合金细化能力的影响不可忽视,溶质Ti能有效抑制Al熔体中TiB2粒子的溶解、粗化和快速长大行为,影响Al-Ti-B中间合金的细化能力。

关键词 晶粒细化  Al-Ti-B中间合金  TiB2  动力学行为  模拟    
Abstract

Grain refinement may not only promote the formation of a fine quiaxed grain structure, which endows the Al alloy castings with good mechanical properties, but also cause a reduction in the casting defects, such as segregation and hot tearing, which has a dominating effect on the processability of Al alloys. It is, thus, essential for both the cast and wrought Al alloys. Although many techniques, e.g. mechanical vibration, electromagnetic stirring, ultrasound vibration, etc. may be used for the grain refinement nowadays, inoculation remains the most widely applied method in the industrial production due to its simplicity and high efficiency. For most Al alloys, Al-Ti-B master alloy is used as the grain refiner. Much work has been done to investigate the solidification behaviors of the Al alloys inoculated with Al-Ti-B master alloys since the 1970 s. Models were developed to describe the microstructure formation under the effect of inoculants. These researches clearly demonstrate that the grain refining efficiency or the heterogeneous nucleation rate is closely related to the concentration of solute Ti as well as the number density and size distribution of TiB2 particles in the melt. One shortcoming of the previous research work in this field is that the kinetic behaviors of TiB2 particles during the heating or cooling processes of the melt, i.e. dissolution/growth, coarsening and precipitation of TiB2 particles, are neglected. Generally the size distribution of TiB2 particles in the Al-Ti-B master alloy was used in the modeling and simulation of the solidification of Al alloys. In this work, solidification experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetic behaviors of TiB2 particles in the melt and the effect of solute Ti. A model was developed to describe the kinetic behaviors of TiB2 particles during the whole process from the beginning of the addition of TiB2 particles to the melt until the solidification of the melt. Calculations were carried out according to the experiments conditions. The results demonstrate that TiB2 particles may dissolve and coarsen during the holding temperature period, and grow during the cooling period of the melt. The kinetic behaviors of TiB2 particles have an obvious effect on the grain refining efficiency of the master alloys. The addition of solute Ti can significantly suppress the growth/dissolution, the Ostwald ripening of TiB2 particles and thus affects the grain refining efficiency of the master alloy.

Key wordsgrain refinement    Al-Ti-B master alloy    TiB2    kinetic behavior    simulation
收稿日期: 2017-03-17      出版日期: 2017-05-15
:  TG111.4  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目Nos.51501207和51471173、中国载人空间站项目No.TGJZ800-2-RW024以及辽宁省自然科学基金项目No.201501043
作者简介:

作者简介 张丽丽,女,1987年生,博士生

引用本文:

张丽丽, 江鸿翔, 赵九洲, 李璐, 孙倩. 溶质Ti对Al-Ti-B中间合金细化Al影响的新认识:TiB2粒子的动力学行为及溶质Ti的影响[J]. 金属学报, 2017, 53(9): 1091-1100.
Lili ZHANG, Hongxiang JIANG, Jiuzhou ZHAO, Lu LI, Qian SUN. A New Understanding Toward Effect of Solute Ti on Grain Refinement of Aluminum by Al-Ti-B Master Alloy: Kinetic Behaviors of TiB2 Particles and Effect of Solute Ti. Acta Metall, 2017, 53(9): 1091-1100.

链接本文:

http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/10.11900/0412.1961.2017.00084      或      http://www.ams.org.cn/CN/Y2017/V53/I9/1091

Solute element c0 / % k m / (K%-1)
Fe 0.140 0.03 -2.93
Si 0.080 0.12 -6.62
Ga 0.014 0.14 -2.52
Mg 0.003 0.51 -6.20
Cu 0.001 0.17 -3.40
Mn 0.001 0.94 -1.60
表1  工业纯Al中杂质元素及其含量c0、分配系数k和液相线斜率m
图1  Al-3Ti-1B和Al-3Ti中间合金显微组织的SEM像
图2  Al-3Ti-1B中间合金中TiB2粒子的半径RTiB2分布
图3  工业纯Al和不同Al-3Ti添加量下经0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)中间合金细化处理的工业纯Al微观组织的OM像
图4  工业纯Al平均晶粒尺寸随Al-3Ti添加量(或熔体中溶质Ti浓度)的变化
图5  添加12%(Al-3Ti-1B)中间合金的工业纯Al样品中TiB2粒子形貌的SEM像
图6  添加12%(Al-3Ti-1B)中间合金的工业纯Al样品中TiB2粒子平均半径 R¯TiB2随熔体保温时间的变化
图7  添加0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)中间合金的Al熔体内溶质Ti及B过饱和度和TiB2粒子体积分数随时间的变化
图8  添加0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)中间合金的工业纯Al熔体内不同时刻的TiB2粒子尺寸分布
图9  添加0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)中间合金的工业纯Al熔体内R¯TiB2随时间的变化
图10  不同Al-3Ti中间合金添加量下经0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)细化处理的工业纯Al熔体中TiB2粒子数量密度NTiB2和R¯TiB2随时间变化
表2  用忽略TiB2粒子动力学行为(NKB)和考虑TiB2粒子动力学行为(CKB)方法计算得到的基体凝固前熔体内NTiB2、溶质Ti的生长限制因子QTi和总的生长限制因子QTotal
Additive amount of the master alloy NTiB2 / 1014 m-3 QTi / K QTotal / K
NKB CKB NKB CKB NKB CKB
0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B) 8.06 6.20 0.883 1.242 1.788 2.147
0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)+0.11%(Al-3Ti) 8.06 6.72 1.600 1.891 2.505 2.796
0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)+0.22%(Al-3Ti) 8.06 7.07 2.318 2.567 3.223 3.472
0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)+0.33%(Al-3Ti) 8.06 7.31 3.035 3.255 3.940 4.160
0.48%(Al-3Ti-1B)+0.54%(Al-3Ti) 8.06 7.61 3.752 4.653 5.374 5.558
  
图11  工业纯Al平均晶粒尺寸随生长限制因子和TiB2粒子数量密度的变化
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